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Satalayt: Kuwa samaawi ah Orbital isfeerada


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Ma bidix aad u badan kuwaas oo kaa kafaala-qaadi karo 1945 isagoo sanad il qabad leh - arkeen dhamaadka colaadaha caalamiga ah ee ugu weyn dunida ee abid loo yaqaan; ugu dheer-socda Madaxweynaha Maraykanka weligiisba Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Madaxweynaha 32nd our) dhex maray iyo weligiis iyo ka bedelay Madaxweyne ku-xigeenka oo uu Harry S. Truman; Qaramada Midoobay ayaa la soo jeediyey oo la aasaasay by October ee sannadkan in isku mid ah iyo, ugu dambeyntii, Arthur C. Clarke, Xusay hindisa, jirka, sahamisa quuska, iyo qoraaga sayniska khayaaliga, si sax ah u saadaaliyey ee dhalashada iyo isticmaalka ugu weyn ee nin-dhigay satalayt.

Mr. Clarke tegey mid noqday oo ka mid ah hogaanka saddex qorayaasha Science-Fiction uu Zaman iyo sidoo kale guulaysatay in la saadaaliyo dhalashada ee taleefannada gacanta iyo GPS in 1956. Waxaa lagu waayo, guulaha rayidka ah iyo sayniska ee AD 2000, oo idlaadeen ee 2008. Wuxuu ka dhigay satellite saadaasha in magazine oo laga leeyahay dalka Britain sayniska Wireless World sida warqad u Tifaftiraha. Waxaad qaadan kartaa eegno waxa at la link this: lakdiva.org/clarke/1945ww/1945ww_feb_058.html.

fig04Clarke dhab ka dhigay warqado 2 sannaddaas, mid ka mid in uu u magazine iyo wax ka badan oo faahfaahsan warqad labaad oo arkay qaar ka mid ah wareegga kooban soo diray. Asal ahaan, ka satellite fikradda dhashay muuqashadii dembigooda ka badan ayaa saldhigga boos. Waxay ahayd in ay leeyihiin shaqaalaha ah saarnaa iyo sidoo kale ugu adeegi lahaa sida stop gami waayo, gantaallo iyo sidoo kale codsiyo ay isgaarsiinta a. Waxa uu saadaaliyay dhalashada ee Satellite ee ku saabsan 50 sano, laakiin waxa ku dhacay ka dhakhso badan in; Si kastaba ha ahaatee, waxaa jiray huwada adeegsigeeda caawinta pride sida uu soo jeediyay. Fikradda ah satalayt ad-taagan (ama kastana Falag in sii joogo hal meel oo raaca Earth ee wareeg) ma ahaa ee asalka ah Clarke, wuxuu samaynayye on shaqo ee Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.

Ruush The Satellite Sputnik gaari falagiisuu in 1957 daahay. Just 4 bilood ka dib, in hore 1958, Maraykanka ayaa sidoo kale a satellite (Explorer I) ee falagiisuu. In 1959, Navy Maraykanka bilaabay cimilada ugu horeysay satellite: Vanguard 2 ah, oo ma ay shaqeeyaan arrin iyo sidoo kale la filayay, laakiin waxaa raacay in yar ka badan sannad ka dib in 1960 by TIROS 1, kaas oo lahaa ujeeddo la mid ah sida ururka ka horeeyey, isla sannadkaa, isgaarsiinta ugu horeysay satellite, Echo ah, ayaa la bilaabay. Echo waxa uu ahaa dadban a satellite; waxay ahayd oo kaliya wax ay soo kabsato off calaamadaha of. 1962 arkay furitaanka oo ka mid ah laba Satellite isgaarsiinta firfircoon ugu horeysay, ka Relay iyo Telstar ah. In 1964, ugu horeeyay ee ad-taagan satellite, 3 Syncom ah, ayaa la bilaabay. Sanadihii la soo dhaafay, tirada satalayt falagiisuu ayaa dul heehaabayeen qiyaastii 1000 ama si. Laakiin oo kaliya aad u yar satalayt military waxaa loo oggol yahay sawirada dhow-up xad-dhaaf ah oo dhulka.

macmal ugu weyn satellite (Inaynu naqaan ah (qorista music riwaayado)) waa Space Station Caalamiga ah. Ma aha oo ay ku jiraan 'dalagga' hadda satalaytsat3 dhawaan bilaabay, tirada satalayt oo uu soo diray waa ka badan lixdan iyo shan boqol. The Satellite ee maanta ka buuxin noocyo kala duwan oo noocyo iyo hawlaha, sida: Intelligence / sahan (Military / Dawladda), Isgaarsiinta, iyo Earth fiirsasho (Commercial, sida saadaasha cimilada iyo sameynta map), laakiin dhawrid meel, halkaas waxaa jooga wax-u Killer waxbo (Military), kaas oo waxaa loo isticmaalaa difaaca by baabbi'iyeen gantaalaha cadowga iyo weerar by burburiyayna qalabkii meel ka dhasha horjeeda (ie satalayt kale). Ilaa hadda, oo kaliya Maraykanka, Shiinaha iyo Ruushka ayaa awooday in ay wada baabbi'in bartilmaameedyada in meel bannaan oo. satalayt sahanka waxaa loo isticmaalaa GPS. Biosatellites loo sameeyay in lagu qaado waxyaabaha nool meel (guud ahaan non-insaanka) cilmi.

Satalayt leedahay noocyo kala duwan oo Galaatiya loo isticmaalo iyo sidoo kale, kuwaas oo loo doortay isagoo ku salaysan ayaa qastigoodii (ama Dhaedo iyo suuska orbital). Galaatiya leeyihiin qaybaha badan; waa kuwan: Altitude, wadaaagin, Eccentricity, rabitaan, dacayadeed, gaarka ah, iyo Synchronous. Sare waa meel fog satalayt lagana rujiyey la orbited. Galaatiya Dhulka meelaha 4, laga bilaabo yar yahay (ilaa 1240 miles), ilaa dhexdhexaad ah (ilaa 22,236), iyo Geosynchronous (22,236 miles kor u si sax ah), iyo jidka oo dhan ilaa Orbit High Earth (ka baxsan miles 22,236 laakiin weli waxay ku jiraan dhulka ee beerta gravitational). satalayt Man-ku sameeyey dhulka falagiisuu sare ayaa sida caadiga ah ragii ay muhiimada iyo waxaa la geeyaa at height this si ay u sii ka mid ah jidka satalayt kale; noocan ah idiinna waxaa inta badan loo yaqaan Tuurida ah ama qashin ama kastana falagiisuu dhex Graveyard (by habka of tixraaca, Dayaxa sida caadiga ah waa 238,900 miles dhulka kor ku xusan). Marka a satellite waa falagiisuu dhex geosynchronous, ay xawaaraha orbital waa agagaarka cagaha 9800 per labaad; at height this, waxa ay qaadataa maalintii shayga 1 sidereal si kastana falagiisuu dhex dhulkeenna (celcelis ahaan maalin sidereal waa yar 4 daqiiqo ka yar saacadaha 24) taas oo u dhiganta xawaare wareeg dhulka.

03_Clarke_BeltThe Galaatiya wadaaagin satalayt u isticmaalaan, ilaa hadda, waxay kala yihiin: Geocentric (ku wareegsan dhulka), Heliocentric (agagaarka The Sun), iyo Areocentric (agagaarka Mars). Eccentricity muhiimad ahaan waa in ama aan ku satellite'S falagiisuu waa wareeg ah ama elliptical. Waxaa jira 4 Heerka Galaatiya dhulka elliptical, idiinna kala iibsiga geosynchronous, idiinna kala iibsiga geostationary, idiinna molniya, iyo kastana falagiisuu dhex Dhuldhoobo. idiinna Dhuldhoobo A leeyahay rabitaan ah 63. 4 ° iyo Galaatiya caalamka maalin sidereal; muhiimad ahaan, ay u ahaato hal meel go'an (laakiin ma aha sida saxda ah sida falagiisuu a Geostationary) in ka badan adduunka, iyadoo ay sare duwan sidii qaabkii ay ellipse. Rabitaan ah idiinna waa satellite'S cadow ka ah idiinna Equatorial saafi ah - sidaas, idiinna a kala horjeeda oo aad u waa ku dhawaad ​​90 °. Galaatiya dacayadeed dabooli tusaalayaal kala duwan orbital adag; mid ka mid ah tusaalayaal ka ugu fudud oo waa kastana falagiisuu dhex retrograde, taas oo micnaheedu waxaa soo baxday dhanka ah jihada in jidhka Falag buu la orbited isku bedbedeli doono; idiinna retrograde waxaa dhif ah loo isticmaalo, maxaa yeelay waxa ay qaadataa shidaal dheeraad ah in la dhiso waarta kastana falagiisuu dhex joogta. Galaatiya gaar ah idiinna Sun-synchronous iyo kastana falagiisuu dhex Moon, Moon falagiisuu waa badan waxa ay u muuqataa sidii. idiinna Sun-synchronous waa daanyeer a kala duwan wadajir; in foomkan of falagiisuu, ka satellite gudba goobaha isla waqti isku mid ah maalin kasta qoraxda; haddii la doonayo, idiinna lagu hagaajin karo sida in ay had iyo jeer dhacdaa iftiinka qoraxda, taas oo ah heer sare sahla ee la sawirto cad, iyo wax kasta oo waxaa kulan Hooskooda in ku dhow goobta la mid ah maalin walba.

Sidii hore loo sharxay, satalayt kastana falagiisuu dhex a synchronous inaad mid kacaanka jirka kuwa samadu ay kastana falagiisuu dhex jihada in jidhka isku bedbedeli doono eesat1 same amount of time it takes that body to rotate once; all the different varieties of synchronous orbits are variations or refinements of this. When a satellite ama jirka kuwa samadu Galaatiya jirka ka weyn Falag buu la rabitaan kale oo aan ahayn 0 ° iyo loo arkaa meel go'an (guud ahaan qaataa inay tahay dusha sare ee dhulka), hannaankii dhaqdhaqaaqa ee in satellite, Haddii viewed si joogto ah, u muuqataa in ay raadiso kala duwanaansho qaar ka mid ah qaab 8 tiradaasi qalloocan oo cirka jooga; qaabkani waxaa lagu magacaabaa analemma ah. Haddii falagiisuu iyo wareeg waa joogto iyo synchronous, qaabeysan si saxda ah ee this hannaankii 8 tiradaasi cajiib ma beddeli doono. kala duwan oo ka mid ah arrimaha loo ogaado hannaanka ee permutation saxda ah ee noocan oo kale ah 'qaadheen' tiradaasi siddeed hannaankii. A satellite with a circular orbital pattern at a 0° incline is said to have a Geostationary (aka “Clarke” – after the author) orbit. It appears to remain in the exact same place relative to the earth at all times at a height of 22,236 miles above the planet. It u muuqda taagan; waa, in fact, whizzing ilaa samada at 9800 cagaha per labaad si ay u ilaaliyaan oo ay qaraabo meel dhulka ah.

Ka dib markii la ruxruxo ugu horreeya ee Satellite, waxaan bilaabay inuu wax dhiso adag dheeraad ah iyo satalayt qaali ah, isagoo intaa ku daray on dawanno iyo aad u badan iyo foorida, dareemayaal dheeraad ah, arrays isgaarsiinta fancier iwm Waayo, muddo dheer, lahaanshaha a satellite waxay ahayd oo kaliya suurtogal ah in dawladaha qaarkood iyo tiro aad u yar oo ka mid ah shirkadaha bareejeeyo, sababo la xiriira kharashka iyo khibrad farsamo ee loo baahan yahay si ay u ilaaliyaan ah satellite falagiisuu. qaabkani qaaday jeedo a xagjirka ah ee soo daahay, isbedel cusub ayaa u soo muuqday. Waxa ugu weyn ee satalayt hadda waa yar yar oo jaban. Wax-u Nano-satalayt ka dhacay cirka; ah "1- gantaal / 1-satellite"Qaabka mar dambe waa muqaddas. The satalayt sheeegateen oo waa weyn ayaa weli loo baahan yahay - ma ka heli iga qaldan; laakiin la ruxruxo xiga this of satellite casriga ah waxay bixisaa fursado cusub. Haddaba, hal launch a ku jiri kara kor soddon satalayt. Sababo la horumarinta farsamada, qaar badan oo ka mid ah satalayt yar yeelan karaan awoodooda isla Sputnik ku lahaa, marka laga reebo in ay ka yar, ka jaban iyo kombiyuutarka badan, badan si dhakhso ah. Sababo la xiriira kharashka iyo orbital iyo baahi, dhibco dooro qaarkiis oo kaliya on Earth la saamayn laga yaabaa / arkay by a satellite si joogto ah. Tani waxa ay imminka bilawdey in la beddelo, dhalashada of satalayt yar oo raqiis ah furi doonaa soo diyaariyeen a awaaley fursadaha cusub ee isgaarsiinta, warbaahinta iyo cilmi-baarista.


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Ryan Salazar

Editor-In-Chief, Publisher at Broadcast Beat Magazine, LLC.
Ryan ka shaqeeya warshadaha warbaahinta iyo post-soo-saarka ugu da'da dhallinyarada ahaa laba iyo toban bilaabay! Waxa uu soo saaray barnaamijyada telefishanka, dhisay goobaha wax soo saarka post waaweyn, ku qoran qaar ka mid ah publications hoggaamineed warshadaha iyo wuxuu ahaa injineer maqal ah oo loogu toban sannadood ku dhow. Ryan hore ku qoray, waayo, Broadcast Engineering Magazine, Cow Creative iyo mashaariicda uu la soo ciyaaray daraasiin publications.
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